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Yoon and Park built a shock-absorbing device with mechanical 'woodpecker' analogues that consisted of glass beads embedded in a steel-encased aluminum cylinder. This material, as well as the output of the intestines, emerges from the bird's cloaca. From there the fresh air from the posterior air sacs flows through the parabronchi in the same direction as occurred during inhalation into ventrobronchi. In addition, the tongue—fluid interactions are identical in both living and dead birds, demonstrating that this mechanism is a function of the tongue structure itself, and therefore highly efficient because no energy expenditure by the bird is required to drive the opening and closing of the trap. Herons use their bills to spear small fish and amphibians. There are three general ways in which birds drink: Human Biology and Health.

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Similase contains a variety of different digestive enzymes such as protease, amylase, cellulase, lipase, phytase, lactase, invertase sucrase , malt diastase maltase. Nutri resold it under its own brand, but as of September changed the formula to an inferior formula not produced by Integrative Therapeutics the Protease preparation method changed from USP XXII method to FCC method, but the product does not perform at all well kinesiologically now - the packaging states that it now contains traces of dairy.

Some brands of Betaine HCl contain additional ingredients such as digestive enzymes or herbs to aid in digestion. Pepsin is a digestive protease released by the chief cells in the stomach that functions to degrade food proteins into peptides.

Additional Pepsin may well help digestion. The majority of digestive enzyme supplements are manufactured from plant sources. Animal sourced digestive enzymes are also available. When comparing digestive enzymes, one should take into account the number of different digestive enzymes, their respective concentrations and the overall quality of the supplement. Which supplements work for you can of course be determined kinesiologically by a qualified specialist.

Enzymes are not just involved in processes such as digestion, but in other essential biochemical processes in different parts of the body, for example, metabolism and oxidation of water soluble toxins.

Enzyme supplements can take various forms, not only digestive enzymes but also enzymes for easing inflammation of the tissues. It is also important to consume plant-based enzymes in our food, without overcooking. These herbs are examined below. Forskolin yes I did write Forskolin and not! It is the main active ingredient in the Ayurvedic herb Coleus forskohlii. Coleus is a member of the mint family and grows in subtropical areas in India, Burma, and Thailand.

It has been used in ancient Asia a wide variety of ailments, especially painful urinations. Forskolin helps by enhancing cellular activity in the bladder wall and in this way, the hiding bacteria are flushed out into the bladder or urine, where they can be killed off by anti-microbial herbs.

In much of the gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscles contract in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave which forces a ball of food called a bolus while in the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract and chyme in the stomach along the gastrointestinal tract. Peristaltic movement is initiated by circular smooth muscles contracting behind the chewed material to prevent it from moving back into the mouth, followed by a contraction of longitudinal smooth muscles which pushes the digested food forward.

Of course peristalsis may be assisted with the use of herbs but to what extent this helps with the coordination of muscle movements, I am not sure. A lack of Peristalsis may be a result of poor diet, build up of mucoid plaque, a low blood supply and 'qi level' of the small and large intestines and abnormal brainstem activity. Intestinal peristalsis can be stimulated by various Energetic Treatments and also herbal products discussed below.

Please note that one does not want to encourage too much peristalsis either, as it may result in food passing through the digestive tract too quick and not being properly digested. It may also result in diarrhoea. You may need to experiment a little to find the optimum balance of number and size of bowel movements, stool solidity and extent of digestion. There are various herbs for promoting peristaltic motion. They should be taken with meals, and in small doses, usually 3 times a day. If you take too large a dosage of these herbs, then there will be too much peristaltic motion and accompanying diarrhea and too rapid a motion of food through the intestines.

This can result in partially undigested food particles in one's diarrhea also, a sign of insufficient digestion time and reduced absorption of nutrients from one's food. Taking Magnesium in addition may also help to loose the stools a little in lieu of these herbs, to assist in the motion of stool through the intestines, although of course, too watery or loose stools is not desirable.

The leaves of various members of the Aloes family are regarded as being the most powerful herbs for promoting peristalsis, and are sometimes referred to as laxative herbs. Do not underestimate their potency! Cape Aloe Aloe ferox - related to Aloe vera Aloe barbadensis ; Cascara segrada is regarded by some as the 'second' most powerful herb for promoting peristalsis; Sennae folium Cassia angustifolia is regarded by some as the 'third' most powerful herb for promoting peristalsis.

I have found it effective in promoting peristalsis. Co-Ton A is a very powerful product, and as well as it's intestinal function, taking 2 capsules with a meal may mean you need to take less Betaine HCl for that meal.

It can also help with reducing hypertension high blood pressure. More information is available at the link below. One drawback of the Co-Ton A product is the Cayenne pepper component.

Whilst some natural health professionals recommend it in certain instances, e. Dr Richard Schulze, there are a number of drawbacks.

Firstly, Cayenne Pepper contains Capsaicin, a type of Vanilloid, which gives it its hot property. This heat may imbalance the energetic system according to Traditional Chinese Medicine. In addition, Capsaicin will stimulate the Vanilloid Receptors, resulting in increased Nitric Oxide release. A significant proportion of CFS, ME and Fibromyalgia sufferers are likely to have elevated Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite levels, resulting in a vicious circle of oxidative stress.

This is examined on the Nitric Oxide page. In addition, Cayenne Pepper stimulates the adrenal glands and if one is already taking Adaptogenic herbs , then the additional Cayenne Pepper may serve to cause insomnia.

The Cayenne is included to assist in increasing blood circulation. This contains Curacao and Cape Aloe leaf, Aloe barbadensis and Aloe capensis or ferox, Senna leaves and pods Cassia angustifolia , Cascara Sagrada aged bark Rhamnus purshiana , Barberry root bark Berberis vulgaris , Ginger rhizome Zingiber officinalis , Garlic bulb Allium sativum , and Habanero peppers Capsicum species. This comes in dry form, and pre-soaking and boiling for 20 minutes is required to prepare it.

Whether this is true in humans I do not know, but it is plausible. Kola nuts of course contain caffeine, and are an astringent and diuretic.

Herbs that stimulate the liver and gallbladder and bile production may also assist with general digestion, as the liver performs a vital role in digestion, especially with regards to the digestion of fats. Please see the Herbs section on the Toxicity page for further information.

Each herb has a specific purpose and a specific mixture of herbs may be recommended by your specialist. Plant extracts from leaves are relatively easy to dissolve into water, but the harder parts, for example, roots, require soaking overnight and simmering in water.

The quality and strength of herbs may vary from supplier to supplier. In general, fresh, organic herbs are ideal. Tinctures in general tend to be more readily absorbed than dry capsules. Whilst the leafy parts of a plant may be readily absorbed in the form of a tea or when consumed as a capsule, the roots of plants are much harder and may not be absorbed very well, even when ground up, and so may require prolonged boiling or their vital ingredients extracted using alcohol.

This is why many Chinese herbs are boiled for 30 minutes prior to consumption. This may not however be very practical! Slightly cheaper or less potent variants of herbs or plants may be used. Non-organic herbs may be lower in active ingredients in any case and coated with small concentrations of herbicides and pesticides.

An article from The Weston A. Price Foundation's web site on the subject of the benefits of Gelatin can found be at the link below. Manufactured gelatin may contain small amounts of MSG some do not and so freshly prepared stock is better although requiring hours boiling! Gelatin is normally derived from cows and sometimes pigs. Gelatin does not occur naturally in animal tissue.

Collagen is however found in the connective tissue, i. This is why broths and stocks are boiled. Gelatin is also a protein. It has been a common staple of western diet until the last century.

Collagen is the oldest known glue in the world and its use in rope baskets and embroidered fabrics has been carbon dated to years ago. Collagen is a fibrous compound. Gelatin is a powder that when dissolved in water forms a thick gel, which when heated melts.

Gelatin-based glues are today used in the manufacture of musical instruments such as violins or guitars. It is also a protein supplement and used in desserts and sweets. Please see the links below for more information on collagen and gelatin. This helps to remove the enzyme inhibitors, mineral absorption inhibiting phytic acid and also indigestible polysaccharides. One may choose to also soak the seeds overnight in order to begin sprouting them. Please see the link below for more information.

Sprouting may also be another option for increased nutrition, which can be eaten raw or steamed please see the Hot and Cold Energy section for more information. Strictly speaking, this does not alleviate digestive impairment but it can ease digestion of these food types if consumed in this manner. The difference however is that blended food does not require so much chewing and is much more finely ground that chewed food depending on one's chewing diligence!

In Edwardian times, great emphasis was put into chewing and digestion. Good digestion was a preoccupation of the Edwardians. However now, few can be bothered to chew properly and gulping down food is the norm. Digestive disorders and bowel cancer are on the increase. This may be useful for those who find partially digested particles of food in their stool on occasion. Blending to many people implies having to blend raw vegetables or making fruit smoothies, but this is not necessarily the case.

Then serve in a bowl or similar. The only downside is that you may consume more liquid with your food that you would otherwise have done if you have eaten it normally, as one needs to put a certain amount of water into a blender with the food in order for the blending to get started.

Some foods absorb water, e. In general it is best to avoid drinking too much with meals. One can balance this with the fact that the food is in a more digestible and masticated format. If one's meal is a little watery, then one should probably avoid drinking additional water with the meal, and if possible swallow one's supplements with a mouthful of the blended, watery food assuming one as supplements to take.

It is inadvisable to swallow supplements just using a thick paste type of blended meal, as there is not enough water to digest the food, let alone for the supplements to dissolve in.

You may end up finding undissolved tablets in your stools at worst, which is a waste of money and not ideal for your GI tract! Dry foods or those which require more water to digest are to be avoided, according to Joseph McClendon III and all foods should be full of water to aid digestion and maintain health preferably 'natural waters' as he calls it meaning water naturally found in vegetables, or alternatively spring water.

It is well known that the same food and drink, if juiced, will not only dilute the stomach juices less than eating it and drinking the same amount of liquid, but it will remain in the stomach for longer, meaning that you will not become hungry so quickly again. This is useful for those who are trying to lose weight. You may elect to juice one meal a day or all your meals. One may want to consider that the action of chewing stimulates the nervous system's impulse to produce digestive enzymes.

When juicing, one may want to consider this fact. Some juiced vegetables, like celery, can still be chewed as they are still fibrous. One can still chew juiced or pulped food. Practitioners like Dr Richard Schulze recommend juicing diets for the chronically or terminally ill. Please see the Detoxification Diets section on the Detoxification page for more information. Such a meal will remain in the stomach longer and start to ferment or fester.

This is especially important for those with already impaired digestion and poor stomach acid and enzyme levels. It is therefore preferable to only drink as much liquid as you need to swallow your food and wash it down and little more, but waiting until your stomach is nearly empty or actually empty before drinking to fulfil your hydration requirements, for the pleasure of drinking or out of boredom!

Typically this is around 2 hours after your meal. If not, then you will be compromising your digestion, using up more energy than you should need to digest the food, and absorbing less nutrients.

You may also feel more bloated. If you are dehydrated it is better to drink some liquid 30 minutes before the meal as it is absorbed relatively quickly on an empty stomach as it should be taken. Our modern culture puts little emphasis on digestion and it is easy to fall into the temptation of simpy drinking at least a glass with every meal, often much more if one is eating out or drinking alcohol. It is ironic that such little emphasis is placed on digestion at meal times and when eating out and we habitually sabotage our digestion on account of our cultural habits and lack of understanding.

So is eating huge amounts of raw vegetables good for everyone? Our society seems to be polarised into those who do not eat any raw vegetables or fruit whatsoever, and those who eat far too many raw vegetables or only raw foods. Much in the same way that political views and social strata are highly polarised. It breaks down starch molecules into more digestible pieces.

It 'denatures' protein molecules, helping to 'unfold' their amino acid chains, making them easier to be broken down by own digestive enzymes. And in most cases, heat softens food, which makes it easier to digest. This is true for vegetables but for fish and meat, cooking tends to soften it to a degree, but then overcooking tends to toughen it up like leather well done steak being virtually inedible!

So even though cooked food is no more calorific, the body requires fewer calories to digest it and process it, to extract the nutrition and energy from it. Previous studies had shown that raw and cooked food were equally well digested because they were focussed on the actual stool coming out of the anus, i. Some food types cannot be eaten if uncooked as they are either too hard or are simply not digested at all e. How much of this is down to inadequate chewing by the mice and how much is down to actual digestion of properly chewed food pellets?

Clearly this has wider implications for CFS patients, as mitochondrial function and digestive enzyme levels are much lower in these individuals, and changing the diet to food types that are harder to digest and require more energy to do so, despite the nutritional benefits, may have disasterous results.

Clearly there are many different and degrees methods of cooking, and this is explored in the section further below on Convenience Foods. Some cooking methods are better than others and retain nutrients better.

Light steaming and blanching are better than higher temperature methods such as baking or frying. Microwaving is the cooking method that should be avoided at all costs as it damages DNA and RNA to the greatest extent, and there have been cases of accidental death due to patients having their blood samples microwaved prior to injection to warm it up.

Richard Wrangham, Harvard biological anthropologist, has studied chimpanzee cultures in the wild for over 30 years. He has theorised that homo sapiens would have never have physically evolved if it were not for the practice of cooking. He believes that cooking with fire was the breakthrough needed for Homo erectus, the precursor to Homo sapiens, to develop the larger, brain filled skull and narrow pelvis and rib cage.

A larger brain requires more energy, and most animals with larger brains also have a larger abdomen and pelvis to accommodate a larger gut. A more efficient way of digesting food and absorbing energy from food would thus mean that the gut could grow shorter and the brain size could expand as there was more energy available to power a larger brain. The driver for this may have been the instinctual desire for softer food that tasted better and was easier to eat.

This shift in eating patterns has been estimated as having occurred roughly , years ago, although it is possible that it started up to , years ago. The above hypothesis rides on the concept of eating more 'energy rich' foods, or more specifically, foods where more energy can be obtained more easily. A recent study on a group of individuals who were to only subsist on raw vegetables, unprepared, who had no blenders and had to chew everything, resulted in weight loss in all participants the majority spending most of their day just chewing food , some with severe weight loss as they gave up on chewing around the clock.

The human being is genetically programmed to seek energy rich foods. This is a survival mechanism so that during times of plenty, an individual can stock up on fat reserves, to get him through times of low food availability. The human body was thus well designed for its purpose. If we go back to the early s, the working class of the UK were very poor and were undernourished and very skinny. With the advent of readily available refined sugar-containing foods, and increasing wealth, the working class of Britain gradually became well fed and now there is actually no class difference between the rich and poor in terms of nutritional health and risk of obesity, colonic cancer and heart disease.

Now we have an unnatural scenario where we are living in a western society where calorie-rich food is readily available and cheap, and that one has to actually resist one's natural urges to eat purely fatty and sweet foods or one will become obese and suffer other health issues.

One could argue that today's society goes against our genetic instincts and the health epidemic we observe today is a result of this.

Extreme self-discipline is required to maintain a healthy dietary regime. This is why many 'health-freaks' are regarded as killjoys and too 'uptight'. A friend of mine once commented that one day mankind will probably evolve to adapt to the modern environment, computer usage, modern diets etc.

The older I get, and the more I learn, the more this seems ridiculous. The human body still maintains its genetic desire for energy-rich foods, let alone being unable to effectively adapt to the influx of foreign chemical toxins, electromagnetic smog and postural stresses. One could argue that standards and expectations have simply increased in today's society, and that the human body is meant to be mechanically worn out at the end of one's life - and that few lived past the age of 35 if one goes back years.

However, animals stay 'fit' until they die, they do not generally turn obese and unhealthy in their prime! We have simply removed certain stressors and added new ones. We should really treat raw fruit and steamed vegetables seperately from raw vegetables. Everyone should probably eat at least a couple of pieces of fruit a day, and plenty of different kinds of steamed vegetables, no matter what condition he is suffering from. Of course there is no harm eating an occasional raw vegetable, but to do so regularly may well cause energetic problems in the body in those that are in severe imbalance already.

According to TCM, cold energy foods, dairy products and foods contained refined sugar or brown sugar tend to have a detrimental effect on individuals with a weak spleen meridian. The stomach and spleen meridians tend to be quite weak in indiviuals with CFS, but of course the exact energetic pattern varies from individual to individual and should be identified by a qualified practitioner. I have noticed that the body appears to be most susceptible to disruption from cold energy food sources when the body is low in energy itself, in particular when qi deficiency, qi stagnation and yin deficiency are present in the body.

This may of course vary according to the individual. A sign of too much cold energy intake is a continuous damp headache, particularly after eating the food source in question e. An excess of cold food consumption cannot be counterbalanced by eating certain hot foods or herbs. It is unfortunately not as simple as this. Please see the section below on Endocrine System Disrupting Foods for a discussion of those raw vegetables that should be cooked lightly prior to consumption and preferably not eaten raw in any significant quantities raw.

Consuming too many sources of 'hot' energy e. For example, Cayenne Pepper is recommended for both internal and external use by some herbalists for those with chronic illness, to stimulate blood circulation. Whilst this may well be effective in the short term, long term use of chilli peppers will elevate one's hot energy levels and may well be detrimental to one's overall health and energy levels as can be seen in the case study below.

There may be a connection between consumption of excessive hot or warming foods and elevated Nitric Oxide production and nervous system excitation. The vanilloid receptor in the nervous system responds to heat as well as vanilloids which are also hot in nature and produces Nitric Oxide when stimulated.

This is examined in more detail on the Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite page. Additionally, foods with 'hot' or 'cold' properties may be an expression of the suitability of the chemical composition of the food in question to one's metabolic typing or oxidising rate - not actually the 'energy' of the food, but more the properties of the chemical compounds in the food, including oil content and several others.

For those suffering from CFS or related conditions, a poorly functioning digestive system and chronic energetic imbalance is often at the heart of their problems, and a raw food-biased diet is unlikely to provide great benefit, and may conversely make the person more ill and further negatively impact the energetic system. However, some individuals have shown to benefit greatly from such diets.

However, response is not uniform, and one has to consider each individual's physiology and digestive and energetic health before prescribing a blanket approach.

Those who benefit from raw food diets in general probably do not have chronic energetic problems in terms of spleen function, for example. There is no 'one size fits all' diet, and each individual's needs, tolerances etc. For those with impaired digestive systems, it is probably best to be conservative and exercise caution, and avoid or limit those food types that will put a strain on one's digestive system or that are too 'cold' in energetic terms, for example, avoiding too many fried foods, soft drinks and too much raw food.

Chinese doctors in general recommend eating fresh fruit, but in general only raw vegetables a couple of times a week for those with impaired digestive systems. The easiest 'vegetables' to digest raw are lettuce, cucumber and tomatoes tomatoes are strictly speaking a fruit, but are usually eaten with savoury foods and not with other fruit. All other vegetables are much harder to digest raw.

Moderation is the key. Once one's digestive system is functioning much more effectively i. Whilst some non-mainstream dieticians recommend raw food diets, they are often looking at diet from a Western perspective, and are ignoring 5, years of oriental medicine and health science. It is not the business of this web site to give dietary advice, but we recommend that you seek dietary advice from a number of different sources, including oriental medicine specialists, and not just rely on one particular source.

And use your common sense of course. Please note that bananas are a source of cold energy and excessive banana consumption disproportionately favoured over other fruits can result in too high a cold energy intake. In addition, consuming chilled foods or drinks e. In addition to the cold energetic property, they require heat from the body to warm them to the body's own internal temperature.

It is generally best to avoid eating overly hot or cold foods. Below is a chart listing the energetic properties of a cross section of food types. There is no 'one size fits all' diet recommended by practitioners of TCM.

This is extremely important. Whilst I agree with many of the principles of macrobioticism, this web site does not subscribe necessarily to all macrobiotic concepts relgiously or at all.

Macrobiotic concepts derive from Japanese internal medicine and practices like Shiatsu. The web sites below discuss hot and cold energy and how they relate to the macrobiotic diet. Clearly some types of food are detrimental to all physiological types! But we are talking 'proper food' here. Some specialists base this on blood type. There may perhaps be some parallel here to the Ayurvedic medicine's concept of Dosha type.

Or perhaps TCM's hot and cold energy concept and the qi bias of a particular person. It may even relate to the modern idea of DNA-based dietary supplements.

I am an ideal case study for this subject matter. For example, from the age of 18 onwards, I developed a taste for Indian and Mexican food, and any foods that were spicy, as they had more 'flavour' and were 'more interesting'. When I left home, I cooked all my own meals and made either a spicy curry or a spicy chilli almost every single night of the week.

In addition, I would eat bagels with cinnamon and cardamom in them, and often eat Swedish gingerbreads which contained plenty of ginger. As well as large amounts of butter and cheese being vegetarian it is sometimes tempting to rely heavily on such hot energy dairy products. The net result was that my daily intake of hot energy herbs and foods was extremely high.

This resulted in frequent sweating, especially at night, a total downward spiral of his immune system frequent colds - with stress as an additional factor, constant thirst and of course a red tongue. Eventually I came down with exhaustion and post viral fatigue syndrome where I would feel exhausted a month or two after each bout of influenza, but after that I would feel ok again.

The second acupuncturist I saw was clued up enough to question me about my diet, and put me onto a herb and spice free diet, along with eating 'white' foods such as white basmati rice, potatoes, vegetables, butter, and some cheese and beans etc. I was also prescribed bags of very strong Chinese herbs.

This could perhaps be likened in some respects to a Salicylate -free diet which is part of the Guaifenesin protocol and the FailSafe Diet. Ayurvedic medicine has a similar approach, where it frequently prescribes aromatic basmati rice as a major food staple to patients, as it is easy to digest.

Anyway, I made a massive recovery, hardly needed more than 5 or 6 hours sleep a night, and felt full of energy. Many years later, I went to a Tony Robbins seminar , where I was sold the idea of eating large amounts of raw green vegetables and salads. I altered my regime massively, and ate blended raw green vegetables every morning for breakfast either green peppers, broccoli high in goiterogenic compounds that suppress thyroid function or celery with added water to make it possible to blend it.

I would also eat large amounts of salad with lunch and dinner. This was a huge intake of cold, damp energy. Initially this felt very good after a 7 day raw blended vegetable cleanse - incurred huge and unhealthy weight loss I was asked if I had been in a concentration camp by one ex-colleague and I went back to needing very little sleep each night, but over a period of a few months, this feeling of wellbeing disappeared and I gradually had one cold after another, before coming down with the flu and never recovering into full blown CFS.

Over a 2 month period, I ate just green peppers each morning for breakfast, which although they do not contain any goiterogenic compounds, still kept him in this constant feeling of malaise i. I did read a newspaper article about the damage raw food diets can do, with a baby being fed raw vegetables by its parents and actually dying an extreme case.

I then stopped eating the raw vegetables for breakfast and immediately felt much better, as if a constant background 'brake' had been removed.

I later discussed this with another acupuncturist who concurred that the high intake of cold, damp energy was very bad for the immune system and energy levels. Unfortunately, at the time, I did not know all that I know now and did not begin a positive health regime for full recovery from CFS. Does anyone have a time machine please? Therefore I had to stay off eating too many saturated fats, spicy foods, and also damp producing foods.

The herbs I was suggested to take were warming herbs, to drive out the dampness, but which were not TOO hot or at least were not to be taken in too large a quantity to produce too much heat as to increase my heat burden. This formula felt very warming indeed, but did increase my energy levels. I also found that taking a small amount of fresh Ginger every day was very helpful. According to TCM, white pepper is ok for driving away dampness but black pepper is too warming i. Probably the most convenient method of sprouting is to use a glass sprouting jar with a screw top mesh lid.

And my favoured sprouted seed is Alfalfa, which is easier to fork out of the sprouting jar when ready, compared with beans sprouts which can be a real pain! If you eat nuts and seeds, then it may be beneficial to soak them for 2 hours prior to consumption. This helps to remove the enzyme inhibitors and mineral absorption inhibiting phytic acid.

This of course does not just comprise of raw vegetables and fruit, but also nuts, nut oils, sprouted beans etc. It could be argued that no animal cooks its food apart from humans. And this is a valid point. However, if one looks to historical context, humans have been cooking food for many thousands of years.

Not that thousands of years of habitual activity necessarily constitutes something positive. However, not all forms of cooking are equal and some are more damaging than others e. Microwaving is clearly the worst and also has the greatest negative effect on the DNA and RNA content of protein rich foods. Oriental medicine's studies of the body have been in existence for many thousands of years, and raw food diets have only become popular in the last 30 years or so, mainly amongst Western Industrialised countries, amongst a small segment of the population.

Who has the greater wealth of knowledge and experience? You decide for yourself. It may well be possible to obtain vegan wine, but is it really doing you any good?

There is nothing energising about consuming alcohol, a concept which is cited as being one of the main reasons for the raw food intake in the first place. Is this consistent with the anti-drugs stance? Many people appear to have benefitted from a raw food diet, whereas others have experienced rapid decline in their health and in extreme cases, death. It is not always possible to fulfill all criteria, but a balance can be achieved, or at least one can focus more on short term targets if immediately pressing issues must be addressed.

It also removes bitterness, makes the vegetables more digestible, more colourful, and sweeter. Excessive consumption of foods high in sulphur e. Goitrogens and sulphur containing foods have been reputed to play a role in reducing cancer, which seems to occur concurrently with a suppression of thyroid function. Brassica family vegetables also play a role in promoting Liver function. Some argue that it is fine to eat these vegetables and nuts raw, as long as one eats a wide variety of raw foods, including those that promote thyroid function.

Others argue that they should be avoided eaten raw entirely. I am of the latter opinion please see further down for his personal experiences.

As stated above, some argue that one should totally avoid eating RAW: Conversely, traditional fermentation is said to increase the goitrogens in grains e. Please note that broccoli and broccoli sprouts do contain a number of other useful flavanoids antioxidants.

The most important of these is Sulphoraphane Glucosinolate a. Sulforaphane Glucoinolate or SGS. Scientists have identified SGS as a long-lasting natural antioxidant and detoxifier. SGS contributes to the integrity of all cells. More than publications have been released detailing the importance of SGS in activating the body's natural detoxification and antioxidant enzymes, i. Glutathione, protecting the body from free radical damage. It is a processed, value added product.

However, if one considers the actual nutritional composition, it is roughly 10 times lower in fibre than just eating soya beans or other types of beans. It is not the first time that processing a healthy food source adds cost to the consumer and decreases nutritional benefit!

This is not to say that bean curd is 'bad' for you, but if eaten with other foods that are high in fibre, is probably a healthy food. However, the point being made here is that if one simply eats cooked soya beans with the same food types, it would be even healthier and containing more fibre! There is some debate about bean curd being bad for you. This is based upon the Phytoestrogens contained in bean curd and soya protein products, which are similar molecules to mammalian hormones and its enzyme inhibited properties.

Studies show also that Asians eat only a fraction of the amount of soya than that consumed by Western vegetarians and those who substitute soya for dairy and meat products. Some arguments against soya are listed below.

Modern western food is obsessed with combining as many food types into a single meal as possible, regardless of the effects on effective digestion, for example, meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruit, starchy carbohyrates, grains, etc. For example, fruit is best digested on an empty stomach and away from other food types.

Starchy vegetables such as potato should be eaten away from large amounts of protein for optimal digestion. Everyone has no doubt experienced feeling incredibly bloated for many hours after eating a steak with french fries, or even worse, a hamburger with french fries and a milkshake!

Not every meal requires a dessert. In fact, desserts are best avoided completely. When a lion makes a kill on the plains of Africa, does it pause before tucking in to cook some french fries or boil some rice? Does it stop to suck milk from a mother's breast? Does it bake a loaf of bread? Or when it has finished consuming the carcass, does it have a chocolate mousse?

The human body has yet to adapt properly to modern diets, and is probably not likely to ever do so. Food combining is a discipline whereby one is selective in terms of what food types one eats together, to ensure that the minimum of energy is employed in the actual digestion of these food types. By eating certain food types apart, one uses up less energy digesting them and digests them more efficiently, absorbing more nutrients from them, then if one ate them together.

In addition, there is less chance of mucin production and thus mucoid plaque formation if one combines food properly. Food combining essentially gives us a little more energy 'for free' with little effort.

It is highly recommended for CFS patients and those with related conditions. Please take note of the above food combining chart. It illustrates what food types are best combined and which are not.

In particular, fruit is best eaten on its own, on an empty stomach i. Melons are best eaten alone. Sweet fruits can be eaten with sub-acid fruits but not acid fruits. Acid fruits can be combined with sub-acid fruits. Fruit classification is not always so clear cut, and certain fruits, e. It is probably not as critical to correctly combine fruit as it is other food types, although I have noticed quicker digestion when combining easily definable fruit types correctly.

All dried fruit is classified as sweet, and is also acid producing. Celery and lettuce can be combined with fruit if desired, but in general most other vegetables do not combine so well with fruit, although some will disagree.

Always avoid eating fats with high protein meals. Some food combining charts classify beans as proteins rather than carbohydrates, but most do not. Beans are regarded by some as being hard to digest, because they contain both copious amounts of protein and carbohydrate usually between 1: Nuts also contain both, but not as much carbohydrate usually 3: Therefore it is commonly held that when eating beans it is best to eat them with either vegetables, salad, or other carbohydrates such as grains, in order to dilute down the protein content slightly.

Additionally, eating beans and wholegrains together provides a complete protein source, whereas eating beans without grains does not.

Some protein source in jars or tins come preserved in olive or sunflower oil, e. This is not ideal from a food combining perspective. Fish preserved in brine is better, although not as tasty! Fresh fish is clearly better if possible. It is best to avoid vinegar with carbohydrates as it impairs carbohydrate digestion, which means avoiding vinaigrette dressing with beans. Many dried greens or superfood powders or fruit powders may contain a wide variety of ingredients, but often different fruit types are mixed together, e.

Some believe that greens and fruits can be happily mixed together, even though the greens are essentially a high protein food source. I am not totally convinced. Equally if you want to take a small amount of greens mixture with a meal, then it is best to take it with a protein meal. Otherwise it can be very useful, although perhaps does not always have to be followed religiously - one may notice the difference combining correctly and not.

I have tried drinking a small amount of pomegranate juice when his previous meal was almost fully digested, and it considerably lengthened the time it took to digest the last remaining amount in the stomach. As stated above, one should not combine two different incompatible food types in the same meal. This also means that one should not begin the next meal before the previous meal has fully left the stomach. Even if you are eating a compatible food type with the previous meal, it is good practice not to eat a meal until one is fully hungry, as otherwise one may be prolonging the amount of time the last part of the previous meal is in the stomach, leading to fermentation or pushing the food through to the intestine too early.

Many of us are not used to be fully hungry, i. So to implement this may require some discipline. Some metabolic types do not cope so well on an empty stomach as others. To wait for the last part of your meal to be digested may feel like you are starving yourself! However, you may notice benefits in terms of your digestion quality and stools.

In reality, to completely empty the stomach in between meals is totally impractical for most, as it involves waiting several hours in a hungry state. For the majority of us, there will be some mixing of meals in the stomach and intestines, but the goal is to keep this to a minimum as much as possible. So the consumption of MCT oils does not put a strain on your pancreas at all. However they are readily absorbed and may overload your liver if eaten in excess.

Long Chain Triglycerides and Short Chain Triglycerides however require enzymes for their absorption and although they require lipase from the liver to digest, do not overload the liver so much as they are absorbed more slowly into the blood stream. Regarding food combining, MCT oil essentially Caprylic acid and Capric acid triglycerides can be eaten with Protein easily i.

Coconut oil may be eaten in moderation with protein e. So it is not ideal but it is not as bad as consuming polyunsaturated oils and other types of saturated fat. Food combining also dictates that one should not eat too much of one food item or type in a meal, e.

Diversity in general is the goal for any diet, and with food combining it should be diversity within compatible food types in the same meal. Eating the same food item every day, or worse still, eating the same food item two or three times a day, may quickly result in the body rejecting that food type.

This is typically noted in it not tasting as good as it once did, or even the body becoming temporarily allergic to it. Some foods that one is mildly sensitive to can be eaten occasionally without too many problems, but to eat them more than once a day will likely produce a severe allergic reaction.

Most food combiners recommend eating fruit in the morning, carbohydrates for lunch and protein for dinner. However, some do better with carbohydrates or proteins for breakfast and feel faint on fruit first thing in the morning. Joseph Mercola uses a metabolic typing to classify people into groups according to what kinds of foods they thrive best on, which is in contrast to others who believe all individuals should be raw vegan and eat low protein diets.

Mercola tends to emphasize high protein and good saturated fat diets in general. Digestion times in the stomach for various food types can be found below. In the new millennium, people tend to have busier and busier lives, work longer hours, feel they have to be an expert at everything they do and be successful in all relationships and love, cram in more and more leisure activities, spend large amounts of time spoiling their children, have more and more stress, and instead of eating better food to compensate, we often tend to rely on nutritionally inferior processed and pre-packaged convenience foods and 'ready meals', which have a minimal nutritional value.

It is no surprise that the majority of the population of your country has poor intestinal health. The UK is the most constipated country in the world according to statistics. Below is a link to a time line of the last century, entitled the 'Slippery Slope Index', containing statistics regarding mortality rates and health problems, and relating these to the changes in agriculture, the rise of mass production techniques e.

Clearly, it is up to the individual as to how to interpret these figures, but they do paint a rather disturbing picture about modern dietary and health mal practices and their huge cost on modern populations. The information was compiled by Randall Fitzgerald in his slightly controversial but factual book 'The Hundred-Year Lie: Please see the Toxins page for information about how additives and toxin levels have increased the average human decomposition rate.

Supermarkets today are interested in maximising their profits, naturally, as is any business. That is the purpose of a business. Supermarkets specifically choose to promote the products that generate them the biggest profits. These are often ready meals and processed foods, particularly from their 'premium', 'finest', 'healthy choice', 'good for you' or 'healthy living' ranges.

Naturally, such premium ready meals have to have as long a shelf life as possible and appeal to the broadest tastes, to appear attractive looking in terms on the packaging! Inevitably, such convenience foods are often very high in saturated fat, sugar and salt. Sugar, salt and fatty ingredients are often added to improve the taste of the bland, often low quality ingredients or resulting overcooked ingredients.

Simple carbohydrates are often used, e. This applies even to supposedly healthy choices, which are rarely actually healthy, despite advertising claims to the contrary. It is very rare to find any convenience food that is actually highly nutritious and good for you! And it is not really surprising. For example, breakfast cereals often make claims about high fibre content on the boxes, implying they are a healthy choice, despite the fact that they are often very high in sugar.

How can eating something with a high refined sugar content be good for you? They often use abnormally small portion sizes when quoting the nutritional information e.

This makes the cereal sound healthier. In addition, it does not take into account what kind of milk is being used. I find that unsweetened Soy Milk is quite unpleasant, and of course sweetened soy milk typically increases the carbohydrate levels. It is a little like eating rice but without all the fibre and with nearly all the carbohydrate. One has to ask how 'healthy' it is to drink pasteurised milk and indeed an expensive vegan milk substitute.

What purpose does it serve? Why the obsession with breakfast cereals and milk? Rice Dream contains approximately 23g of Carbohydrate per 8oz cup.

Semi-skimmed milk typically contains approximately Soy Milk typically contains 15g of Carbohydrate per 8oz cup. Breakfast bars have become more fashionable and popular, with breakfast cereal manufacturers making a 'bar' version of a cereal. These are often marketed as a breakfast replacement for busy people on the move. Basically it is a sweet, not a breakfast. Breakfast or cereal bars have a very high sugar content, and often contain jam or chocolate. They also often contain partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, i.

They do contain some cereal, but on the whole they are almost as unhealthy as eating a Mars bar for breakfast. Consumers seem to be brainwashed by labelling and advertising that low fat products are healthy, even though they contain a large amount of sugar which will still make you obese, rot your teeth and mess up your gut flora! Get up earlier and eat a proper breakfast, or bring some porridge oats to work with you add hot water and mix, or microwave with water.

A breakfast bar, in its small convenient packaging, for 'breakfast' on the move has as much to do with breakfast as a Nissan Micra has to do with a Ferrari. One should bear in mind that most are very high in simple carbohydrates, are generally low in fibre, may well contain transfats and are often slightly browned or burnt meaning that they probably contain a significant level of carcinogens.

This is not taking into account the margarine or sugary jams and marmaldes people often spread onto their baked breakfast goods. Of course, wholegrain or brown versions are better, but still, there are better starts to the day. Many yoghurts, as described above, make claims to being healthy, but often contain sugar, artificial colours and preservatives, even those that contain probiotic bacteria.

Ready made sauces nearly always contain sugar, and the vast majority of ready meals with a sauce in them contain sugar. Since the turn of the 20th Century, the popularity of Sourdough bread aka Natural Leaven Bread has decreased, perhaps more so since the s onwards. Sourdough bread is made by capturing wild yeasts in the dough or batter, a small part of which is kept apart from each batch prior to baking the loaves and reused for the next batch - the process can be repeated indefinitely.

This is in contrast to the popular cultured yeasts that are used in conventional commercial baking the 'fast loaf'. Sourdough bread has a characteristic 'tangy' or mildly sour taste. I have some experience of making sourdough bread in his early 20s.

Because of reasons of profitability, the long term of fermentation and pandering to more commercial tastes sweeter and more bland , bread production shifted from sourdough bread to the common variety.

Whilst eating conventional white bread is leads to increased incidences of Candida and bad bacterial overgrowth, eating conventional brown bread may also cause problems with digestion also in some individuals. At about this stage the central cells of the blastoderm separate from their contact with the yolk to form a cavity.

It is in this cavity that subsequent embryo development occurs. Soon after the formation of the ectoderm and endoderm, a third layer of cells called the mesoderm, or middle layer, is formed. From this stage on, the organs and tissues of the bird will develop from these three layers of cells. Another important development at this stage is the way the cells change to allow the production of the different types of cells that make up the tissues.

By the time the egg is laid the embryo consists of many cells differentiating into the various tissues, organs and body systems. The fowl retains some vestiges of the characteristics of its reptilian ancestors. One characteristic in particular is the influence of ambient temperature during the post laying period on embryonic development.

Failure to satisfy this need leads to significantly weaker embryos. Once in the incubator, the temperature must be controlled within very close parameters. Because the avian embryo has no anatomical connection to the hen, all of its nutritive requirements, except oxygen, must be contained within the egg.

From very early on, the embryo develops special membranes external to its body to access the nutrients in the egg and to carry out essential bodily functions. To better carry out an investigation into poor hatchability it is necessary to have knowledge of the way the embryo develops from day to day.

This is important information when attempting to identify the cause of any poor results. Photographs of the following steps may be viewed by clicking here. This indicates that there is some system to synchronise the hatching process.

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