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Obesity is still seen as a sign of wealth and well-being in many parts of Africa. This has become particularly common since the HIV epidemic began. Some attribute the Venus figurines to the tendency to emphasize fertility while others feel they represent "fatness" in the people of the time. This continued through much of Christian European history, with only those of low socioeconomic status being depicted as obese.
These women, however, still maintained the "hourglass" shape with its relationship to fertility. After centuries of obesity being synonymous with wealth and social status, slimness began to be seen as the desirable standard. In addition to its health impacts, obesity leads to many problems including disadvantages in employment   and increased business costs. These effects are felt by all levels of society from individuals, to corporations, to governments. Obesity prevention programs have been found to reduce the cost of treating obesity-related disease.
However, the longer people live, the more medical costs they incur. Researchers, therefore, conclude that reducing obesity may improve the public's health, but it is unlikely to reduce overall health spending. Obesity can lead to social stigmatization and disadvantages in employment. The most common injuries in this group were due to falls and lifting, thus affecting the lower extremities, wrists or hands, and backs.
Some research shows that obese people are less likely to be hired for a job and are less likely to be promoted. Specific industries, such as the airline, healthcare and food industries, have special concerns. Due to rising rates of obesity, airlines face higher fuel costs and pressures to increase seating width. With the American Medical Association 's classification of obesity as a chronic disease,  it is thought that health insurance companies will more likely pay for obesity treatment, counseling and surgery, and the cost of research and development of fat treatment pills or gene therapy treatments should be more affordable if insurers help to subsidize their cost.
In , The European Court of Justice ruled that morbid obesity is a disability. The Court said that if an employee's obesity prevents him from "full and effective participation of that person in professional life on an equal basis with other workers", then it shall be considered a disability and that firing someone on such grounds is discriminatory.
The principal goal of the fat acceptance movement is to decrease discrimination against people who are overweight and obese. A number of organizations exist that promote the acceptance of obesity. It has more of a global orientation and describes its mission as promoting size acceptance and helping to end weight-based discrimination.
The American legal system, however, has decided that the potential public health costs exceed the benefits of extending this anti-discrimination law to cover obesity. In the New York Times published an article on the Global Energy Balance Network , a nonprofit founded in that advocated for people to focus on increasing exercise rather than reducing calorie intake to avoid obesity and to be healthy.
Hand and Steven N. The healthy BMI range varies with the age and sex of the child. As with obesity in adults, many factors contribute to the rising rates of childhood obesity.
Changing diet and decreasing physical activity are believed to be the two most important causes for the recent increase in the incidence of child obesity. Obesity in pets is common in many countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the medical journal, see Obesity journal. Relative risk of death over 10 years for white men left and women right who have never smoked in the United States by BMI.
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