The gases in the environment

International Journal of Zoology
Another major symptom is fatigue. To receive news and publication updates for International Journal of Zoology, enter your email address in the box below. As oxygen is removed from the bubble, the partial pressure of the nitrogen rises, and this gas then diffuses outward into the water. Medications Adult stroke patients who receive treatment within three hours after the onset of stroke symptoms may receive a "clot-busting" medication called t-PA. A condition characterized by excess blood clotting. Gills usually have a large surface area in relation to their mass; pumping devices are often employed to renew the external medium.


Abscess incision and drainage

Also, eat small amounts of the foods you like and that helps me alot. Walking and excersize helps. It is extremely frustrating at times, but don;t give up too soon.

My next step is to go see a dietician for further help. If any of you wish to e-mail me, my e-mail address is lindaflanigan live. We have to be there for moral support, beleive me!!! PS I go see Dr every 6 mos now for my blood work. Good luck to all of you, and if you have any of your own suggestions, please pass them along. I had right hemi colectomy six months ago and yes I had trouble with diarhhea.

It eventually turned out I had become extremely lactose intollerant and still cant each raw vegetables like salad. So it may be you need to adjust your diet. Keep a diary, remove some foods and see what happens. I had a Right hemi colectomy 6 weeks ago because i had a very large pre-cancerous polyp, i was 27 years old at the time which is extremely rare, and am lucky to be alive.

I was distended and in horrible pain for 10 days, in hospital for My bowels began to work again on their own, peppermint tea helped allot and moving around in bed, feels like it will never end but does.

I also had an Ileus, which resulted in me having a gastric tube placed down my nose into my stomach to drain the bile from my stomach, it was the worst ten days of my life bar none, i couldn't eat until day These symptoms a rare but thought people should know what can occur. I have a massive scar which has only just healed, still have muscle pain around the abdomen.

I had a bowel resection in Aug due to diverticulitus and then had to have a tidy up in January due to scar tissue and the reconnection not being the best.

Before I had the resection, I had lost a load of weight and was in fact under weight, but since my last operation I have gained fat around the laporoscopy area which is very uncomfortable. I eat sensibly and actively exercise, but nothing will shift this great lump from my stomach. Like others, I suffer with loose stools, persistent wind and quite frequent diarehoea.

My stomach problem is affecting not only my ability to buy clothes, but is VERY uncomfortable when doing yoga and pilates. I am a 46 year old woman who on August 6th had a complete hysterectomy and bowel resection. I had a mass of endometriosis on my rectum, so that is why I had to have the resection.

I had an ileostomy for almost 3 months, so the resection could heal I had the ileostomy take down 3 weeks ago. Still am afraid to leave the house for more than 20 minutes. If I make a quick run, I make sure I put on an adult brief. I can hardly make it to the bathroom. How long before this gets better? Is there anyone else out there who had this kind of trouble for endometriosis. Please let me know. Hello, The article is very good. Just I want to point to some rare indications for partial or total colectomy that were not mentioned in the article but I have met in many references , they are pseudomembranous colitis that can not be controlled by chemotherpeutics , chronic dys-functional colitis , and ischaemic bowel diseases which is common only in very old patients.

Thank you for this article. I have recently undergone my 4th operation for chrons related symptoms, 2 resections approx 8 strictures, my recent surgery went well but i am now concerned because my surgeon has called me up and wants to speak to me ASAP regarding results they have from the damaged bowl.

I am dreading the consultation as I fear the worst ie cancer. My point, I have not found any articles that prepare you for this situation post op, ie what happens after the operation what gets tested and why? Anyways I had a look at the percentages regarding colorectal cancer and this is encouraging so thank you for providing this information.

I know this may not be the results that are given but I fear the worst, I suppose it's in some of our worst fears that get confirmed that gives me great concern.

I have been dealing with IBSC for over a decade now; I was put on Amitiza and worked my way up to the maximum dose allowed with no relief. I have had a colonoscopy and am on my 2nd Sitz-Marker test.

I am now taking a cocktail of OTC constipation remedies that help a little but, Heaven forbid, should I skip even one of them; this cocktail consists of 75 - mg of sennosides, 1T Citrucel and 17g of Miralax..

I am currenty consulting with a surgeon as I am considering colectomy. I have found very little reference as to the long term results of a colectomy for constipation. I am actually considering just a partial colectomy as my colon is not damaged or diseased My surgeon warned me of loose stools and bowel incontinence after the surgery; but, he is also only thinking of a total colectomy.

Any information, suggestions or experiences would be greatly appreciated. In I was rushed to Emergency 3 times due to abdominal pain.

It was discovered after much prompting on my part to my doctors that I had Cecum Bascule. I had 2 feet of my large colon removed along with my cecum. This disorder creates multiple polyps and research indicates they do not discover this disorder until autopsy from death by Colon Cancer. Since that time I was diagnosed with Diabetes. I have chronic diarrhea and any change of diet has no affect.

As time passes, the diarrhea gets worse and at this point feel like I have Crohns because I can't be far from the bathroom as when I have to go, I have to go now. In addition, I cannot find much information because this is so rare. When you are going to have a resection, make sure you get the facts about not just the after care but the long term care.

My husband has a fistula related to melanoma cancer connecting his intestine to his colon. He will be having a double bowel resection to remove the fistula. Does it get better? He currently has diarrhea times a day with no relief from immodium.

I had abowel resection Feb. My life has not been the same since. I really would like to have someone to talk too. I can not be away from a bathroom and most days I do not feel well at all. I have no control of my bowel movements,i still where adult diapers. My email is kittyzabroski yahoo.

Ihad the resection because of scar tissue. And the gas never in my life I had a partial resection of my colon in following severe bleeding after a colonoscopy. I was on warfarin because of a prosthetic aortic valve.

Initially, I was under the impression that very little was left of my colon 4 or 5 inches. The surgeon could not identify which polyp removal site was causing the bleed so he had to remove most of it.

During subsequent colonoscopies my colon appears to be getting longer. Either the orignal estimate was wrong or my colon is growing. I am age I also have Marfans syndrome. In I was diagnosed with acromagely. I have had surgery for both conditions. I had the tumor on my pituitary removed, but my growth hormones IGF1 continue to be outside the normal range.

Could the excess growth hormones cause my colon to grow, or should I consider that initial estimate in to have been an error? Jack 65 I think the original estimate was off. The colon is 5 feet. The polyps can be removed without removing any of the colon.

I've been through 4 surgeries just found out looking at a 3 resection and 6 polyp removals. My 85 year old mother was diagnosed with diverticulitis in the sigmoid section of her colon in August. She had a 10cm abscess which was drained and 2 drains were inserted, one in the abdomen, the other in her bottom. She is still complaining of nausea but no pain. The doctors want to do the resection but at her age, I'm afraid she shouldn't have this surgery.

She is in a skilled care facility and I feel as long as they can control her other complaints, why put her through such an extensive surgery? Her quality of life is better now that she is going through rehab and other therapies for other reasons but this is too much for a woman her age.

Ultimately, it is her decision but I am trying to give her information on exactly what she will face during and especially after. They have already said she will have a colostomy, this means yet another surgery to have it reversed. She's not in the best of health as it is and was resigned to enter the facility voluntarily after she could no longer care for herself at her home safely after numerous falls and calls to for help to get up either off the floor or out of the recliner she spent the night in because she couldn't get up.

At her age, I really don't think this type of surgery will prolong her quality of life and may hasten her demise if infection or complications set in. I had sigmoid colon resection 4 months ago. I was able to avoid a bag. I had drainage for 2 mos. When the drainage stopped I felt good having normal bowel movements for maybe the first time in my life.

I had chronic diverticulitus for years and it finally perforated my colon. This past week I started to have pain in area of colon and skin around incision. I went to ER running a temp. My surgeon lanced the area of incision that was last to close and drained a lot of reddish fluid. I left the hospital yesterday after a 48 hr.

I am home again with dressings to change along with packing and the oral antibiotics. My question are these; 1 How concerned should I be about reoccurring infection at this point? I've had several and removed polyps before but don't remember ever hearing they were precancerous. Should I get a colonoscopy sooner? Hy recent surgeon says "I don't need to worry about diet anymore but try not to over do carbs.

What are your thoughts about those two things? I want to be as proactive as possible and certainly want to avoid any reoccurring infection and or diverticulitus even though the 8" section removed was the area with the problematic area with the bend removed. Let me know what you think, thank you.

I had chronic diverticulitis. I initially had bleeding for three days after surgery and ended up having to have a blood transfusion. Could not eat for a few days without throwing up plus had no appetite anyway so was put on IV nutrition. The doc said mine was a complex case. The diseased section was low in the sigmoid colon - 10 inches was cut out. I was in the hospital for 7 days. I am in third week of recovery at home and doing great for the most part.

I try not to just sit or lay down most of day. I get up and move around often and try to do very light housework. Following recovery directions to the T about food and everything else.

Still have the occasional aches in stomach area, more good days than so-so days. No loose stools but have had feeling of constipation two times in three weeks.

Once, I waited and it resolved on its own time schedule - I was expecting to go when I felt that feeling that I needed to go but body had it's own time schedule. The other time I took a small dose of Milk of Mag. Drinking lots of water per directions and I am not normally a big water drinker. Despite those first days after surgery and a blood transfusion, I have no regrets getting this operation done. My life will be so much better now - no more chronic diverticulitis, no taking strong dual antibiotics for two -three weeks at a time to treat infections, E.

Dealt with that on and off for 10 years! Operation was suggested five years ago and I refused to do it - it sounded too scary. Last episode of diverticulitis convinced me that I just couldn't tolerate the pain and risks anymore. I think taking the refrigerated probiotic capsules twice a day during recovery have helped digestive system tremendously. Six days postoperative bowel resection readmission with gastric problems then developed femoral thrombus.

Had emergency surgery December 15 for diverticulitis with fistulas needed a bag which was a night mare. I am recovering from re-connective surgery April 23 still a little sore. A large incision from under breast to almost vaginal area and of course where the stoma was. I am so happy not to have the bag and with a great surgical team I would recommend the surgery.

My wife had 8 inches of her colon removed 2 months ago. After 2 weeks went by she had a hard time breathing dizzy when she gets up no energy at all. She has a hard time even trying to take a shower. She said it feels very tight in her chest has 0 energy. Does anyone no if anyone has had this Issue after colon resection. My concern is that now my abdomen stays distended with a large buldge on the left side of left upper abdomen. When I eat, the buldge becomes larger along with abdomen also becomes larger for quite some time and does not seem to be resolved.

Has no relation as to bowel movements. I had a post op illeus after I was sent home 5 days postop and returned for another 7 days. Was wandering if the illeus could have caused problems with healing of surgical area.

Im not a surgeon, but was wandering if anyone would know if the peritoneum is suppose to be closed before the incision and could this be the reason? Also the xray on in the ER for illeus revealed some ascites. Would this be a concern following this type of such a surgery and the reason behind the abdominal distention?

If any one has answers please email me at: I just had bowl resection surgery. It went very well , hospital stay 6 days, had drain tube, ng tube, after surgery. They give you pain pump. I was dreading the drain tube removal and it was nothing! Cutting the stitches hurt more than taking it out! I'm very sore , but on my way to recovery! Don't be scared of the surgery! Good luck and God bless you.

I had a transverse colon resection 6 months ago due to a motor vehicle accident trauma, part of the colon was removed However, on a given day I may have several diarrhea stools along constipated stools I have kept a diary to no avail Have severe pain one day ok the next after eating exactly the same food at the same time. Its difficult to plan outings cause I don't know what "today " will be like. Always have to be near a bathroom And bless the person in the next stall Its embarrassing, but what can one do?

Sometimes I feel I have to explain why. My family and friends tell me its ok to have these problems as its better than the alternative Its hard to have to live life this way.. My son is in the hospital now and has not been diagnosed with FAP or anything but they are going to run some test on him Monday. He is 8 years old and has had stomach problems all his life.

He has been hospitalized numerous times for being impacted. Today he passed a few white lumps that looks like fatty tissue and was round looking. And from to they have done colonoscopy and came back good but have not done one since I took a picture of it and googled it and with the photo the results came back it resembles anal cancer.

But this has not been confirmed by test yet. A second opinion would greatly appreciated. My mother just had surgery. Her surgery went well thank god. She's had a few complications though like a lot of nausea. And she mentions having a lot of discomfort in her rectom and gets very nauseas when she drinks sprite. If anybody has any of these issues and knows If this is normal please let me know pesmi64 gmail. I had a colon resection 2 months ago by keyhole surgery.

I now have a burning sensation pain to the left of my tummy button where they put the camera in and removed the diseased bowel. I was in hospital with the pain yesterday. They checked me out and said it may well be Neuropathic pain. I only have the pain when i stand up and walk around for a few minutes. Any suggestion of how i can treat this? I have a few days off work before I have to go back.

I await your reply and thank you in advance. Hi i am 42 years old male and had a lower anterior resection due to stage 0 colon cancer. They removed about 10 inches of my sigmoid colon. I continue to take 1 teaspoon of Metamucil in the evening but continue to have erratic bowels 5 to 9 on different days and difficult to evacuate never feeling empty. After these episodes I'm exhausted and want to just lay down. Anyone post 1 year with same residuals? Please reach me by email with colon cancer as subject.

Hi I had 13in of sigmoid colon removed. I was told I could eat anything after surgery. It's 3 yrs since surgery and still can't eat fruits vegetables salads. The first year I had a serious infection which took its toll. Currently I have a few good weeks without pain. But it's a roller coaster ride. Still can't make plans to travel. Always need to know where the bathroom is located. I am grateful to be alive but discouraged.

My faith in God keeps me going along with friends and family. Now I'm suffering with painful IBS. My dr has put me on meds for it. Thank you all for sharing your stories, I don't feel crazy. No one else can really understand. Another major symptom is fatigue. I've been taking vitamin b supplements which help. Also drink Boost which seems to help.

My daughter has had a bowel resection a few days ago, she was only 40 last month and her first baby is only nearly a year old. She was in I. She was going into a normal ward today. She thought she would be out of hospital within 5 day, but as far as I have read normal is at least 7 days. She also had another small piece cancer taken out of another part of her abdomen. She had a pett scan last week which also showed up suspect areas in her lung.

But complete diagnosis hadn't been finished about her lung yet. Also she was told she would probably need chemo, started before she left hospital.

What are her chances of beating this. Her grandfather died of bowel cancer, he found out about it too late, the only reason my daughter was diagnosed on time was that the tumour ulcerated and burst, unfortunately with it bursting some cancer cells may have spread through bloodstream.

What does anyone think about it. Please message me privately. March of I had a sigmoid colectomy. I am a 42 year old woman and weigh pounds at 5 foot 5 inches tall. I'm giving specifics on my height and weight because I do not believe that has anything to do with the problem. However, one week after my surgery I started having serious complications of a straining feel in my rectum. The first time it happened I pushed so hard because I had the urge to go to the bathroom but there was no void and all I pushed out were hemorrhoids.

After many many visits with my gastrointestinal surgeon he decided to put me on Bella Donna and opium suppositories. I stayed on those for 9 months and inserting two suppositories daily to keep the urge of having to use the bathroom away. After much prayer and research I found out that I was deficient of water and as long as I drink a minimum of 64 ounces of water a day then I never had the problem however, in the last 6 months, water does nothing for me anymore. I was off of the suppositories for 4 years and now I'm having to use them once a day again.

My doctor told me that I was the first one to ever tell him anything like that and he wrapped it up as being rectal spasms. I am now wearing adult diapers because the issue has gotten so severe that I never know if it's going to actually be some sort of bowel movement or just gas from the pressure of this straining feel.

If there is anyone that has had any type of symptom like this please let me know if there is an answer. My doctor cannot figure out what it is since he has never heard of this, but when I have bowel movements which are about 12 times a day they look similar to straws and are very loose. Not only has my doctor diagnosed me with IBS after my surgery but this is a constant pressure feel of having to go have a bowel movement. There is no pain with it but it is so frustrating to be out in public and have it happen and now that it's happening more often on a daily base I have to have help.

I had a colon resection because of continued diverticulitis on January 25, I also have microscopic colitis and Graves. I feel that life was so much better before the surgery.

I controlled my colitis and graves with diet and exercise, with taking Cipro for the diver. My husband and I met with the surgeon who assured me that after having the resection I could live the same way, only better.

Before the surgery I was a very active 48 year old woman. Canadian officials have expressed concern that a few thousand Canadian girls are at risk of "vacation cutting", whereby girls are taken overseas to undergo the procedure, but as of there were no firm figures.

According to Colette Gallard, a family-planning counsellor, when FGM was first encountered in France, the reaction was that Westerners ought not to intervene.

It took the deaths of two girls in , one of them three months old, for that attitude to change. Around , women and girls living in England and Wales were born in countries where FGM is practised, as of Both men were acquitted in Anthropologists have accused FGM eradicationists of cultural colonialism , and have been criticized in turn for their moral relativism and failure to defend the idea of universal human rights.

Africans who object to the tone of FGM opposition risk appearing to defend the practice. The feminist theorist Obioma Nnaemeka , herself strongly opposed to FGM, argues that renaming it female genital mutilation introduced "a subtext of barbaric African and Muslim cultures and the West's relevance even indispensability in purging [it]".

The photographs were published by 12 American newspapers, without the girl consenting either to be photographed or to have the images published. The debate has highlighted a tension between anthropology and feminism, with the former's focus on tolerance and the latter's on equal rights for women. According to the anthropologist Christine Walley, a common position within anti-FGM literature has been to present African women as victims of false consciousness participating in their own oppression, a position promoted by feminists in the s and s, including Fran Hosken, Mary Daly and Hanny Lightfoot-Klein.

Nnaemeka argues that the crucial question, broader than FGM, is why the female body is subjected to so much "abuse and indignity", including in the West. Carla Obermeyer has argued that FGM may be conducive to a subject's social well-being in the same way that rhinoplasty and male circumcision are.

Cosmetic procedures such as labiaplasty and clitoral hood reduction do fall within the WHO's definition of FGM, which aims to avoid loopholes, but the WHO notes that these elective practices are generally not regarded as FGM. Sweden, for example, has banned operations "on the outer female sexual organs with a view to mutilating them or bringing about some other permanent change in them, regardless of whether or not consent has been given for the operation". The philosopher Martha Nussbaum argues that a key concern with FGM is that it is mostly conducted on children using physical force.

The distinction between social pressure and physical force is morally and legally salient, comparable to the distinction between seduction and rape. She argues further that the literacy of women in practising countries is generally poorer than in developed nations, which reduces their ability to make informed choices. Arguments have been made that non-therapeutic male circumcision , practised by Muslims, Jews and some Christian groups, also violates children's rights.

Globally about 30 percent of males over 15 are circumcised ; of these, about two-thirds are Muslim. However, in some countries, medicalized female genital mutilation can include removal of the prepuce only Type Ia Thabet and Thabet, , but this form appears to be relatively rare Satti et al. Almost all known forms of female genital mutilation that remove tissue from the clitoris also cut all or part of the clitoral glans itself. Book XVI, chapter 4 , Martínez 6 March The Guardian ; also see Anantnarayan, Lakshmi et al.

A Contested Site" , wespeakout. Donaldson James, Susan 13 December Vintage Books, [], ; for irugu being outcasts, Kenyatta, , and Zabus , 48— State University of New York Press, , ff.

Also see Lynn M. Thomas, " 'Ngaitana I will circumcise myself ': From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see FGM disambiguation. Road sign near Kapchorwa , Uganda , Prevalence of female genital mutilation by country.

Religious views on female genital mutilation. Campaign against female genital mutilation in colonial Kenya. Egyptian Doctors' Society call for ban. Sudan, under Anglo-Egyptian control , bans infibulation; the law is barely enforced. Guinean gynaecologist Aja Tounkara Diallo Fatimata begins year practice of performing fake clitoridectomies to satisfy families.

Denniston, et al eds. Thomas, "'Ngaitana I will circumcise myself ': A Reader , Pambazuka Press, , p. Female genital mutilation in the United States. Female genital mutilation in the United Kingdom. The term 'female circumcision' has been rejected by international medical practitioners because it suggests the fallacious analogy to male circumcision In most countries, medical personnel, including doctors, nurses and certified midwives, are not widely involved in the practice.

Cut, no flesh removed describes a practice known as nicking or pricking, which currently is categorized as Type IV. And sewn closed corresponds to Type III, infibulation. For the years and country profiles: In Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa. University of Pennsylvania Press. Bagnol, Brigitte; Mariano, Esmeralda The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. British Crusades in Colonial Sudan. Wombs and Alien Spirits: University of Wisconsin Press.

Why Aren't Jewish Women Circumcised? Gender and Covenant In Judaism. University of California Press. El Guindi, Fadwa El Dareer, Asma Woman, Why Do You Weep: The Female Circumcision Controversy: Hosken, Fran []. The Missionary Movement in Colonial Kenya: The Foundation of Africa Inland Church.

Greek Papyri in the British Museum. The Beginning of the End". Female "Circumcision" in Africa: Archived from the original PDF on 29 October Mandara, Mairo Usman View of Nigerian Doctors on the Medicalization Debate". Culture Controversy and Change. Sex and Social Justice. New York and Oxford: In James, Stanlie M. Genital Cutting and Transnational Sisterhood. University of Illinois Press. Female Circumcision and Clitoridectomy in the United States: A History of a Medical Treatment.

University of Rochester Press. In Borch, Merete Falck. Language and Translation in Postcolonial Literatures. Journal of Medical Ethics. WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries". Berer, Marge 30 June It's female genital mutilation and should be prosecuted". Health Care for Women International. Black, John July Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Elchalal, Uriel; Ben-Ami, B.

Essén, Birgitta; Johnsdotter, Sara July Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Archived from the original PDF on 14 April International Journal of Epidemiology. BMJ Clinical research ed. Gallard, Colette 17 June Gruenbaum, Ellen September—October Research Findings, Gaps, and Directions".

Hayes, Rose Oldfield 17 June Carey; Teklemariam, Mamae 19 January New England Journal of Medicine. Iavazzo, Christos; Sardi, Thalia A. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Ismail, Edna Adan Edna Adan University Hospital. Studies in Family Planning. Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta May Archived from the original PDF on 21 September Who is at risk in the U.

Public Health Reports Washington, D. Kelly, Elizabeth; Hillard, Paula J. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Khazan, Olga 8 April The Journal of Sex Research.

Knight, Mary June Some remarks on the practice of female and male circumcision in Graeco-Roman Egypt". Kool, Renée; Wahedi, Sohail 15 April A Comparative Law Perspective". Mandara, Mairo Usman March International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. They will not wear it even though in both cases the vessel is surrounded by stuff you cannot breath.

They may, however, wear partial-pressure suits or have emergency space suits handy. Those suits will only protect you for ten minutes or so, but in exchange you won't be hampered like you were wearing three sets of snow-suits simultaneously.

Instead, the ship's pressurized inhabitable section will be divided into individual sections by bulkheads, and the connecting airtight hatches will be shut. The air pressure might be lowered a bit. We do not see the room explosively decompress when the railgun projectile shoots through the Donnager's hull and wall.

Except for the fact that air is being sucked out into "hard vacuum," everyone manages to stay in their seats. This happens for a few reasons. The first is the hole, or constriction, is too small for all the air in the room to explosively leave the room. The second deals with the fact that air is made of atoms. Air escaping the hole in the hull to the vacuum of space leaves at approximately the speed of sound.

As air molecules exit the hole, the remaining molecules have to "catch up. All cars do not move together. One car slowly inches forward and then everyone follows. This means there is no explosive decompression unless the entire wall is suddenly removed. While the crew has some time to act, that time is very limited. Scientists and engineers have looked at the physics of constricted airflow for some time with regard to aircraft. It is a very good idea to know what happens to an aircraft if a hole forms while in flight.

Fliegner was one of the first engineers to look at this problem and was able to work out how much air leaves depending on the pressure inside a cabin and the size of a hole. We know this as Fliegner's Formula:. As we expect, the air flow depends on the hole's area, cabin pressure and temperature. Of course, Fliegner's Formula is not that accurate. As the leak progresses, the pressure in the cabin drops and this also affects air flow through the hole.

Have no fear, we can use the equation and a little physics to figure out the time it takes the pressure to drop to a certain level. We have some new variables: Now that we have figured out the equation, we can model what happens inside the cabin and how much time the Canterbury crew have to act. While you would not necessarily die, you can fall unconscious.

We assume that the Canterbury crew can not help themselves and will eventually die as the cabin pressure decreases until all the air is sucked out to the vacuum. Maybe Shed is the lucky one here. While we do not have the exact dimensions of the room, we can make a few assumptions.

Based on the body sizes of the crew, I assume the room is 10 meters by 10 meters by 5 meters or cubic meters in size. If we plot the graph over time we see that the pressure drops to half its value where everyone has a little over a minute to plug up the holes. Assuming that everything happens in real-time, from the moment Sed loses his head to the second the holes are sealed, the crew manages to do seal the holes with some seconds to spare.

While the estimated size of the room may be larger than it really is, the point is The show definitely gets the science right and the urgency the crew must act to save their lives. It was just after reveille, "A" deck time, and I was standing by my bunk, making it up.

I had my Scout uniform in my hands and was about to fold it up and put it under my pillow. I still didn't wear it. None of the others had uniforms to wear to Scout meetings so I didn't wear mine. But I still kept it tucked away in my bunk. Suddenly I heard the goldarnest noise I ever heard in my life. It sounded like a rifle going off right by my ear, it sounded like a steel door being slammed, and it sounded like a giant tearing yards and yards of cloth, all at once.

Then I couldn't hear anything but a ringing in my ears and I was dazed. I shook my head and looked down and I was staring at a raw hole in the ship, almost between my feet and nearly as big as my fist. There was scorched insulation around it and in the middle of the hole I could see blackness—then a star whipped past and I realized that I was staring right out into space. I don't remember thinking at all. I just wadded up my uniform, squatted down, and stuffed it in the hole. For a moment it seemed as if the suction would pull it on through the hole, then it jammed and stuck and didn't go any further.

But we were still losing air. I think that was the point at which I first realized that we were losing air and that we might be suffocated in vacuum. There was somebody yelling and screaming behind me that he was killed and alarm bells were going off all over the place. You couldn't hear yourself think.

The air-tight door to our bunk room slid across automatically and settled into its gaskets and we were locked in. I know it has to be done. I know that it is better to seal off one compartment and kill the people who are in it than to let a whole ship die—but, you see, I was in that compartment, personally.

I guess I'm just not the hero type. I could feel the pressure sucking away at the plug my uniform made. With one part of my mind I was recalling that it had been advertised as "tropical weave, self ventilating" and wishing that it had been a solid plastic rain coat instead. I was afraid to stuff it in any harder, for fear it would go all the way through and leave us sitting there, chewing vacuum.

I would have passed up desserts for the next ten years for just one rubber patch, the size of my hand. It was the ordinary sort of pillow, soft foam rubber.

I snatched one hand out and then the other, and then I was kneeling on it and pressing down with the heels of my hands. It dimpled a little in the middle and I was scared we were going to have a blowout right through the pillow. Noisy was screaming again and Captain Harkness was still asking for somebody, anybody, in compartment H to tell him what was going on. That was a popular idea. About three of them jumped to it.

Noisy got clipped in the side of the neck, then somebody poked him in the pit of his stomach and they swarmed over him. If Noisy lets out a peep, slug him again. I told him and that is about all there was to it. They took a while to get to us because—I found this out afterward—they isolated that stretch of corridor first, with the air-tight doors, and that meant they had to get everybody out of the rooms on each side of us and across the passageway.

But presently two men in space suits opened the door and chased all the kids out, all but me. Then they came back. One of them was Mr.

The other man squatted down and took over holding the pillow in place. Ortega had a big metal patch under one arm. It had sticky padding on one side. I wanted to stay and watch him put it on but he chased me out and closed the door.

The corridor outside was empty but I banged on the air-tight door and they let me through to where the rest were waiting. They wanted to know what was happening but I didn't have any news for them because I had been chased out. After a while we started feeling light and Captain Harkness announced that spin would be off the ship for a short time.

Ortega and the other man came back and went on up to the control room. Spin was off entirely soon after that and I got very sick.

Captain Harkness kept the ship's speaker circuits cut in on his conversations with the men who had gone outside to repair the hole, but I didn't listen. I defy anybody to be interested in anything when he is drop sick. Then spin came back on and everything was all right and we were allowed to go back into our bunkroom. It looked just the same except that there was a plate welded over the place where the meteorite had come in.

That was how I happened to go up to Captain's mast for the second time. George was there and Molly and Peggy and Dr. Archibald, the Scoutmaster of our deck, and all the fellows from my bunk room and all the ship's officers. The rest of the ship was cut in by visiplate. I wanted to wear my uniform but it was a mess—torn and covered with sticky stuff. I finally cut off the merit badges and put it in the ship's incinerator. The First Officer shouted, "Captain's Mast for punishments and rewards!

Dad shoved me forward. He said, "I will read from yesterday's log: Safety interlocks worked satisfactorily and the punctured volume, compartment H-twelve, was isolated with no serious drop in pressure elsewhere in the ship. One of the passengers, William J. Lermer, contrived a makeshift patch with materials at hand and succeeded in holding sufficient pressure for breathing until a repair party could take over.

The Captain looked up from the log and went on, "A certified copy of this entry, along with depositions of witnesses, will be sent to Interplanetary Red Cross with recommendation for appropriate action.

Another copy will be furnished you. I have no way to reward you except to say that you have my heart-felt gratitude. I know that I speak not only for the officers but for all the passengers and most especially for the parents of your bunk mates.

Recently, a discussion on ejecting people from airlocks or airplanes had inadequate math, and there's much confusion about the variables at play. It took a long time to work out the calculations correctly, but this post has the high-level intuition.

I put all the gritty derivations and analysis notes in this addendum below. If you want to change these constants, or calculate yourself, the script I wrote is here: You're in a corridor. In fact, it's in the regime where your peak acceleration into the great beyond might just kill you outright. Area scales quadratically, which can decrease the ratio H counterintuitively. Hence, small reductions in dimension result in high reduction in area, which results in an even higher reduction in force.

Consequently, even fairly large holes can produce almost negligible pulls. Of course, if you got right up against the hole, the air pressure inside would act over your body instead something like N trying to slam you through that 10 cm hole.

Initial conditions are the same as in scenario 1 as makes sense , but as the precious, life-giving air rushes away to oblivion, the force and density rapidly decrease. Therefore, the acceleration quickly drops to zero.

This is still explosive decompression, but the initial jolt is basically a tenth of a second, which you might conceivably survive. Note that your final velocity is much slower than v a. Again, quadratic scaling can be counterintuitive. In the first second, 3. Two important things to notice: As the previous scenarios might have hinted, this is therefore an explosive decompression event. This combines with the rapid pressure drop to throw things out of the airplane. No hard numbers, but I'd estimate that either force would be sufficient to do this alone.

You're in an airplane, when a small hole gets punched in the side somehow. The hole is small relative to the cabin volume. This is therefore not an explosive decompression event. This was also apparently confirmed experimentally by Mythbusters eps.

Explosive decompression is real, but it requires the area of the hole to be large relative to the volume of the chamber.

Even apparently large holes like, size of your opened hand 10 cm won't explosively decompress a typical room. The equations given above should be reasonably accurate, assuming I didn't screw up copying them from my notes and program. You can check the math itself here and again use the program here: Here, I'll elaborate on the equations and the assumptions made in deriving them.

For symbols used, please refer to the parent article. There are extremely complex adjustments that people use in industry to improve on this, but to really do fundamentally better, we'd need to write an actual fluid simulator.

You'd also have to run simulations and interpret them. Happily, all that is overkill. The drag equation works well at high fluid velocities such as we have here and gives plausible answers for the general cases under consideration. The main practical limitation of this analysis is that additional effects mainly compressibility, adiabatic changes, and temperature are not considered.

They'd only matter in scenarios 3 and 4, and in these cases the air rushes out so quickly, and the accelerations are so much greater in the initial part of the calculation where such corrections are zero, that I don't think they matter.

Moreover, engineering texts are frankly so badly written as to be incomprehensible on this point, and resolving that by going for a BS in MechEng is overkill just for solving a stupid thought experiment on the Internet.

Intuitively, this is because air molecules can only flow into a vacuum as fast as they can "find out" about it. This happens at the speed of sound, because air molecules bump into each other or don't, because they've escaped to vacuum , and this is how sound is transmitted. For more discussion, see e. For scenario 1, we simply use Newton's Second Law to find a t from the drag equation. Since the source has an infinite supply of air and the outward flow is sonic which means that, by definition, information about pressure cannot propagate "upstream" , the density in the chamber.

From here, we try to integrate to get v t. However, we run into a problem, because v r t itself depends on v t. So this is a recursive integral. But happily, we can just differentiate the whole mess to get the Riccati differential equation:. Which is the formula I presented. To get the other equations, you differentiate to get a t , and then scale by m to get f t because Newton's Second, again. For scenario 3, we're considering the diminishing effects of the reducing pressure in the chamber.

Unfortunately, their use of Bernoulli's Law is erroneous; they assume density is constant, but it isn't. In any case, the result is greater than Mach 1 for reasonable values, which is not possible. The volumetric flow rate should instead be calculated as:. The Riccardi obtained is:. Because I'm lazy, I tried solving this with WolframAlpha. Anyway, the equation is separable, so it's nearly as easy to solve by hand:.

You calculate a t and f t as before. Scenario 4 is to scenario 3 similarly as scenario 2 was to scenario 1. Here, the differential equation for M t is unchanged, because it is already parametrized on the hole area. The first change is in the Riccardi equation, where we need to multiply v a by H in the final term, yielding a final v t of: If you'd like to tweak the numbers, or you don't want to enter in all this garbage into your calculator, the Python script I used for this analysis can be found here: This came up in a different newsgroup, and upon trying to answer it I blew it badly.

What happens to the helpless heroine? Back by Callie, the cross-sectional area is about 9 [m 2 ], so conservation of mass assuming uniform density says the airspeed by her is a gusty OK, so what did I screw up? I do take into account the increased airspeed as she gets very close to the breach closer than 2 [m] or so. Or does Callie really fully decompress in the airlock, and gently drift out about 10 seconds later?

I haven't verified your numbers, but for a quick sanity check, there's about kg of air in the lock, but only half of that is behind her—her own body weight—and most of that will escape past her.

If you really want the damsel to experience dramatic accelerations, I think you should start her closer to the opening, or have the inner door open, or maybe use a longer, thinner lock that she almost blocks with her body.

Yes, that's about right, if the door opens outward and sticks at a 10 cm gap. Though actually I'd be very surprised to see an airlock with a door that opened outward at all.

If it did open outward, and was free to swing open wider, consider that it has kPa pressure acting on the inner surface. It will accelerate open very rapidly indeed — probably on the order of tens of milliseconds.

The rarefaction front will propagate inward at the speed of sound, with the air accelerated nearly instantaneously as the front passes. At worst, approximately, and assuming a heroine of only moderate size i. The heroine, being around a thousand times more dense than air, will be accelerated to about a thousandth of that, around a foot per second.

One cannot recommend, for the usual purposes, a heroine who obstructs a substantial proportion of nine square metres. The duration is much longer than that, since she is still in the path of the air escaping from further back in the airlock.

Even though the static pressure is at 0 Pa, it still has significant density. So the air rushing past her from further in the airlock will exert pressure as it escapes past her.

So for a long airlock, her velocity would asymptotically approach the free outflow speed. Ah, so if I hang a sheet of tissue paper just inside the airlock of an O'Neill habitat, and open the door, it won't go anywhere, right?

Because all it will experience is an infinitesimal moment of acceleration as the transition between atmosphere and vacuum propagates past its negligible thickness? I'm thinking that's not right. I'm also thinking that a propagating transition between atmosphere and vacuum would represent a violation of the law of conservation of mass.

What actually propagates, is a transition between air at 10 5 Pa, and air at 5. And that transonic wind condition, remains even after the transition has passed — for as long as it takes for the transition wave to reach the farthest wall of the chamber behind our heroine, and as long beyond that as it takes for the wind to actually empty the chamber.

If the geometry is cylindrical, I get for a standard heroine in a standard atmosphere, a net velocity of 1. That's in the low-velocity limit; as she herself approaches transonic velocity downstream, the force will decrease and her own velocity will asymptotically approach The ability for explosive decompression to push people around is usually exaggerated. Your results sound qualitatively like I'd expect — it'd budge her a little at first but very rapidly the ambient air pressure would drop to the point that it wouldn't have much of an effect.

That's interesting, because it appears to conflict with the usual description of explosive decompression on aircraft: Is that description simply inaccurate, or is there a difference in the cases that I'm missing? It is simply inaccurate. Yes, decompression is dangerous, and if a significant hole opens up the winds can be extreme. But they're not caused by the decompression!

It should be noted that an airliner at altitude is usually moving at a significant fraction of the speed of sound through the air. The air doesn't just simply leave as it would in a vacuum, or if it were a zeppelin cabin.

From the point of view of the aircraft, the air outside has kinetic energy greater than any hurricane. If a large hole opens up, part of that can get in. It depends on how much air is in the vessel, how big the hole is, and how close the victim is to the breach. Sure, there are some cases where the victim will likely be forced out of the breach.

But probably not in the case Brian was talking about. Not that really helps her chances, since she's exposed to vacuum with no way to get back in.

The image of everything that's not nailed down flying out the door may be inaccurate, but the earlier estimate of 0. Perhaps the most famous explosive decompression incident is Aloha Airlines which suddenly lost a large section of skin but managed to land safely. One flight attendant was thrown to the floor and another one was thrown out of the plane altogether, never to be seen again. A isn't particularly large but it would require substantially more imparted velocity than that to throw somebody out.

A spacecraft pressurized to 1 atmosphere should be a bit worse as well, since the accident in question occurred at 24,ft where the outside air pressure is still about 0. It should be noted that a small hole doesn't do this, because a small hole doesn't result in explosive decompression in the first place. A small hole will leak , not cause a bang, and there would just be some wind.

Thus the fears of instant death due to a gunfight piercing the hull are completely overblown, and I believe this is what Mythbusters investigated. But this is an entirely different scenario from opening a large airlock door or the case of the poor Aloha Airlines flight attendant.

Just the decompression, not so much. It's the fact that so much of the hull was peeled away. The Mythbusters bit iirc was concerned with two aspects of a fairly small hole. First, will it suck everything inside towards it, and second, will it rip the hull open and expose the interior to the airstream that is, will any small break in the skin necessarily spread very far.

And they concluded, no and no. Of course, they were talking about a bullethole again iirc. But I doubt things would be much different for anybody at a reasonable distance from, say, a hatch-sized hole. An upper-half-of-the-hull-peels-away-in-a-section-tens-of-feet-long sized hole is another matter entirely, and I doubt anybody will notice the decompression, given the brisk breeze outside. Later the episode they tested what a moderate amount of explosives would do to the pressurized hull.

The result was iirc a seat cusion sucked out, but the dummy still in its seat. Again its not the decompression you have to fear.

NASA assumes that each astronaut consumes per day 0. Astronauts also use 26 kilograms of water per day for personal hygiene. NASA also assumes that each astronaut excretes 4. For details see below. Some of this water can be reclaimed. Ken Burnsides and Eric Henry figured that each person has a reserve of 10 liters of water, and requires somewhere between 0. An aluminum potable water storage tank The VPCAR process is a wastewater treatment technology that combines distillation with high-temperature catalytic oxidation of volatile impurities such as ammonia and organic compounds.

The report mentioned that the VPCAR system was selected over a rival system since it had a lower mass, volume, and turnaround time. Of course there is the problem of recycling disgust , but that has to be fixed by psychologists, not engineers. NASA has a variety of space foods. Preparing food for prolonged space missions is always a challenge. If you are not interested in how these numbers were derived, skip to the next section.

This is about 2. Frozen meat has a density of about 0. Frozen veggies were less 0. Fresh foods have a density of roughly 0. Dry and canned goods range from densities of 0. Split the difference and use 0. Assume that we're off on our calculations and round up to 80 m 3 as a reserve. Storage, including refrigeration wastage is usually three times the space, but the Navy has a tradition of doing things in amazingly tight quarters.

So we will merely double it, for m 3 to store our food. Add about liters of water water for crew for 90 days, plus a reserve which of course masses kg. Add about 3, liters of compressed air 0. William Seney notes that the NC State document specify oxygen consumption figures differ considerably from Eric and Ken's estimate. According to the NC State document this works out to about 0. For a real Spartan bare-minimum cruise, you can probably use a figure of one m 3 per person per day. But this would not be recommended for a cruise of longer than 20 to 30 days.

And don't even think about feeding your crew food pills. The bare-minimum of consumables mass looks like 0. People actually need 2. Our 90 day cruise now has about m 3 of bare essentials. Put in niceties like better cooking gear, spare clothing, toilet paper, video games, soda, luxury goods, and you are probably getting close to m 3.

That will fit in a sphere 8 meters in diameter about 25 feet. If the spacecraft has no artificial gravity, you'd better include lots of spices and hot sauce. As the body's internal fluids change their balance, crewmembers will get the equivalent of stuffy noses. This will decrease the sense of taste.

Food will taste bland like it does when you have a head cold, and for the same reason. You'll need more space if you want to include hydroponics for fresh veggies. Roughly liters of hydroponics per person per 'green meal' per week. This also helps CO 2 scrubbing and crew morale. About 20 m 3 per 25 men, or m 3 for our man crew. The injector can be set to dispense water in one-half ounce increments up to 8 ounces.

Dehydrated food containers have a "septum adapter", i. Otherwise when you removed the water injector the container would become a water weenie and drench you. For beverages you would then insert into the septum adapter a drinking straw. The straw has a built-in clamp to prevent the drink from spraying all over your face when you take the straw out of your mouth.

For foods you wait until it rehydrates, then use the scissors to cut the container open. You make an X-shaped cut, creating four large flaps to help keep the food from escaping a "spoon-bowl" package.

The warming oven is a forced air convection oven with internal hot plate. It can hold up to 14 food containers at a time: NASA's space shuttle used fuel cells for power, which create plenty of water usable to rehydrate food. The shuttle meals were mostly dehydrated to save on mass. The International Space Station on the other hand uses solar panel for power, which do not produce water.

While there is some water available from recycling there is not enough for rehydrating food there is barely enough for powdered drinks. Therefore the ISS uses no dehydrated food, instead is uses frozen and thermostabilized food which already has the water in it. Back in the 's, it was tough to get food to armies on the move the age-old problem of Logistics. An army would have to split up and spread out in order to ransack all the villages and farms in the area for food.

Napoleon almost lost the war and his life at the Battle of Marengo because of this. While his army was split up, Napoleon's small army segment got ambushed by the entire Austrian army.

If the other French groups had not returned in time, Napoleon might not have even been mentioned in the history books. Determined not to get caught like that again, Napoleon offered a reward of 12, francs to the inventor who could preserve food for army rations in large quantities.

The prize was won by Nicolas Appert , who basically invented thermostabilizing your grandmother calls it " home canning " using Mason jars. He had stumbled upon Louis Pasteur's pasteurization process 50 years before Pasteur. The press went wild, waxing poetically on how Appert had established the art of fixing the seasons, so seasonal foods could be enjoyed year round. The French army was pleased as well.

Appert used glass bottles to hold the food. A short time later, Peter Durand figured out how to thermostabilize food inside tin-plated cans. A couple of decades later artists figured out how to make their studios portable by storing their oil paints in tin tubes.

Decades later NASA stored thermostabilized foods inside tin tubes for the Mercury mission but later abandoned them because the mass of the tube was more than the mass of the food it held. NASA packages food in single-service disposable containers to avoid the ugly payload mass requirements of a dishwasher. Eating utensils and food trays are cleaned at the hygiene station with premoistened towelettes. The containers are in one of five standardized dimensions so they will fit the holes in the "dinner table" and the slots in the oven.

All five sizes have the same width. They often have build-in velcro pads on the bottom. In the galley the girls set about making dainty sandwiches, but the going was very hard indeed. Margaret was particularly inept. Slices of bread went one way, bits of butter another, ham and sausage in several others. She seized two trays and tried to trap the escaping food between them — but in the attempt she released her hold and floated helplessly into the air. We'd better tie everything down, I guess, and let everybody come in and cut off a chunk of anything they want.

But what I'm wondering about is drinking. I'm simply dying of thirst and I'm afraid to open this bottle. DuQuesne was surveying the room, a glint of amusement in his one sound eye. Just a minute — I'll get the net. He got it; and while he was deftly clearing the air of floating items of food he went on. Plain liquids you can drink through a straw after you learn how. Your swallowing has got to be conscious, and all muscular with no gravity. But what I came here for was to tell you I'm ready to put on one G of acceleration so we'll have normal gravity.

I'll put it on easy, but watch it'. Meanwhile, it was time to eat, though he did not feel particularly hungry. One used little physical energy in space, and it was easy to forget about food. Easy — and dangerous; for when an emergency arose, you might not have the reserves needed to deal with it.

He broke open the first of the meal packets, and inspected it without enthusiasm. And he had grave doubts about the promise printed underneath: Still, the liverwurst went down pleasantly enough; so did the chocolate and the pineapple puree.

The stewards, it appeared, were determined to make him eat for the whole twenty-five hours of the trip, and he was continually fending off unwanted meals.

Eating in zero gravity was no real problem, contrary to the dark forebodings of the early astronauts. He sat at an ordinary table, to which the plates were clipped, as aboard ship in a rough sea. All the courses had some element of stickiness, so that they would not take off and go wandering round the cabin. Thus a chop would be glued to the plate by a thick sauce, and a salad kept under control by an adhesive dressing.

With a little skill and care there were few items that could not be tackled safely; the only things banned were hot soups and excessively crumbly pastries.

Drinks of course, were a different matter; all liquids simply had to be kept in plastic squeeze tubes. Emergency or Survival food is typically found in emergency re-entry capsules and spacecraft lifeboats although in reality the latter are a really stupid concept.

They also may or may not be stored in the ship proper to help deal with a temporary interruption of the food supply such as a catastrophic malfunction in the CELSS. If all the algae got incinerated by a solar proton storm, the crew will need something to eat while a new crop of algae is grown to harvest. You see this in a couple of episodes of Star Trek: Enterprise , where emergency rations are used when the food replicator is non-functional.

Real-world emergency rations typically are nutrient bars containing about 2, calories enough food for an entire day.

Sub-Table of Contents